SITUATION AND THE REGION-BUILDING EVOLUTION OF SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE
(A Background and May 2003 Issue in Brief)
Study 49, 2003
ISSN 1311 – 3240
MONTHLY ELECTRONIC PERIODICAL
This month, leading representatives
of the US Department of State restated their position that the war on
terrorism remains an open-ended activity, and warned that anyone who provided
safe haven or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) to terrorist groups would
be attacked by counter-terrorist forces. The United States will take the
campaign to the attackers and will take care of its own protection, Richard
Haas, US State Department Director of Policy Planning told radio BBC.
The war on terrorism, the message runs, will ebb and flow, with occasional
resurgences. This ‘war’, Haas continued, will not end anytime soon, and
thinking about so-called ‘exit strategies’ is inappropriate.
It also became clear that the countries that stay on the sidelines would
find themselves at the very least with a diminished international role,
as the case of Turkey shows. In May, NATO signaled it would be more involved
in the various US-led campaigns, including in the occupation forces for
Afghanistan and Iraq.
Peacekeeping in Iraq began after the adoption of UNSC Resolution 1483
on 22 May. Most of the peacekeepers will be stationed in the respective
regions of Iraq in the next two months. Several Balkan countries (Albania,
Bulgaria, and Romania) have sent troops as part of the peacekeeping mission
in Iraq. The Security Council Resolution, approved overwhelmingly, allows
the United States to administer and rebuild Iraq. In September this year,
a new Iraqi administration is expected to take over food distribution
from the present ‘Authority’, as the US and British occupying forces are
called in the UNSCR and the respective conventions.
In the Balkans, the most difficult question is still the status of Kosovo.
There were signs of preparatory efforts to find a longer-term solution
to this issue, as well as confirmation of the longer-term engagement of
the international community with a stabilizing presence in the area and
continued commitment to modernizing and integrating the whole peninsula
into the Euro-Atlantic structures. A ‘bottom-up’ effort is still required
to further improve the interethnic relations in Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
and Macedonia. Despite the urgency of the post-war reconstruction of Iraq
and the continuing fight against terrorism, the US, NATO, and the EU will
not completely divert their focus from Kosovo and the rest of the Western
Balkans in the coming months.
In May, Montenegro pressed its case for independence after the election
of a new president. The bilateral relations were a clear reflection of
positive, constructive attitudes and of a will to contribute to the progress
of the region. At the regional level, fighting trans-border crime was
the focus of stabilizing the Balkans. The coordination of law enforcement
in Southeastern Europe continues to be a major challenge at the national,
regional, and European levels.
This month, both the EU and the World Bank (WB) were active in supporting
regional projects. One such undertaking deals with the transit of Caspian
gas to Central and Western Europe via Bulgaria and Romania, and another
centers on improving the management of water resources in Southeastern
Europe. Both these projects can contribute substantially to the economic
and infrastructure modernization of the region.
The process of differentiated integration of Southeastern Europe in the
European and Euro-Atlantic structures continued after the decision to
integrate Slovenia in the EU. Bulgaria and Romania received assurances
that their accession negotiations could end in 2004, and the target date
of 2007 for full integration of the two countries remains unchanged as
far as the EU is concerned. These signals were important for both Sofia
and Bucharest, giving the governments the necessary leverage to pursue
the necessary reforms to meet the EU accession criteria. In May, Bulgaria
told the EU it was prepared to provide troops and equipment to the newly
formed European Security Forces. NATO continued its ratification process
(in the United States Senate and the Danish parliament) of the Accession
Protocols to the North Atlantic Treaty of 1949. NATO is already involving
the leading military authorities of the seven candidates, including three
from the Balkans, in the everyday activities of the Alliance. This month,
Serbia and Montenegro received a very clear signal in Brussels concerning
the requirements Belgrade has to meet before joining the Partnership for
May was very much a ‘US month’ in Southeastern Europe. First, the US Senate
voted in favor of the accession of Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovenia to
NATO. Furthermore, Albania, Croatia, Macedonia and the US signed the ‘Adriatic
Charter’ that provides formal US support to the three countries on their
way to full NATO membership. Also, the US showed a diminished interest
in Turkish bases by leaving the military base in Incirlik, though US troops
remain there as part of a NATO command. US Secretary of State Colin Powell
visited Albania to thank the government for its support in the war on
Iraq, and to sign a bilateral agreement for exempting each other’s citizens
from prosecution by the ICC. A joint military exercise of US and Albanian
forces took place in the second half of May on Albanian territory. The
Bosnian authorities are in the process of ratifying an agreement with
the US to prohibit the extradition of US citizens to the ICC. Powell visited
Bulgaria to celebrate 100 years of diplomatic relations. He thanked the
“Bulgarian allies” for their diplomatic and military support in the war
against Iraq, for their full commitment to fighting terrorism, and for
their peacekeeping activities side by side with US troops. Powell congratulated
Bulgaria on the unanimous US Senate vote in favor of Bulgaria joining
NATO. US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz thanked Skopje for
its support of the US-led coalition against Iraq. Finally, this month,
the US president opened the way for a practical and intensive military
assistance to Serbia and Montenegro in an effort to encourage defense
reform and strengthen the democratic institutions of the country.
SECURITY THREATS, CONFLICTS AND POST-CONFLICT DEVELOPMENTS IN THE BALKANS
Security Threats: Terrorism, Post-War Reconstruction in Iraq, Afghanistan
a) Bulgaria. (1) Two Bulgarian citizens were close
to becoming victims of the 13 May terrorist act in Saudi Arabia. This
attack was a reminder that terrorism is ubiquitous. Three Bulgarians have
been killed in three separate terrorist acts since 2002. (2) On 22 May,
the Bulgarian government decided to send 500 peacekeepers for the post-war
stabilization and reconstruction of Iraq. The battalion, assembled from
600 volunteers, will be transported to Iraq by the end of June. It will
serve under Polish command. On 29 May, parliament approved the government’s
b) UNSC Resolution 1483. On 1 May, US President Bush
announced in a televised speech from a US aircraft carrier off the coast
of California that major combat operations in Iraq had ended, and said
coalition forces were engaged in securing and reconstructing that country.
On 22 May, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 1483 ending economic
sanctions on Iraq, setting out the responsibilities of the UN in Iraq,
and supporting the establishment of a transitional administration run
by Iraqis. By a vote of 14 to 0, the 15-member Council (Syria was absent
from the meeting) adopted the resolution under Chapter VII of the UN Charter.
The Council asked the UN Secretary-General to appoint a special representative
for Iraq with independent responsibilities to coordinate UN activities
and assist the Iraqi people. The Resolution outlined seven areas of responsibility,
including coordination of humanitarian and reconstruction assistance,
safe return of refugees and displaced persons, human rights, and legal
and judicial reform. The US and UK officially accepted the responsibilities
of occupying powers in Iraq and in the Resolution they are referred to
as the ‘Authority’. UNSC resolution 1483 indirectly seals the toppling
down of the regime of Saddam Hussein and the intervention of the international
coalition for the immediate disarmament of Iraq.
c) Romania. On 13 May, Romanian Foreign Minister Mircea
Geoana said Bucharest would send 500 peacekeepers to help stabilize post-war
Iraq. The troops would probably be mechanized infantry and NBC warfare
soldiers. The Romanian troops, together with Italian soldiers, will probably
be under British command in the south of Iraq.
d) US-Turkey. On 6 May US Under Secretary of State for
Political Affairs Marc Grossman called on Turkey to play a constructive
role in the region as well as in post-war Iraq and at the United Nations.
He acknowledged there is a sense of disappointment in the US that Turkey
did not support the campaign against the regime of Saddam Hussein. Grossman
said the future of US-Turkish relationship depends on what Turkey chooses
to do. Improvement of bilateral relations are contingent on several things
Ankara could do: continue to provide robust support to coalition forces
in Northern Iraq; make it easy for NGOs to do their work in Iraq; convey
to Syria the message conveyed by US Secretary of State; cooperate in the
UN on post-war Iraq.
On 6 May US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, speaking on CNN
Turk television, also criticized Ankara for not supporting the US in the
campaign against Saddam Hussein’s regime or post-conflict goals for the
e) Macedonia. Macedonian President Boris Trajkovski told
the press on 17 May in Skopje that his country would send a 39-man troop
to Iraq on 6 June to support the democratic process, and provide humanitarian
support, which is now essential, and also in order to help secure law
and order. President Trajkovski said that millions of people would remember
Iraq’s liberation as an act of democracy, and affirmed Skopje’s continued
support for US policy and activities.
f) NATO. On 21 May, the North Atlantic Council unanimously
decided to task NATO’s military authorities with providing advice as soon
as possible on the Polish request for NATO support in the context of their
leadership of a sector in a stabilization force in Iraq. The Lithuanian
and the Bulgarian peacekeeping contingents will be under Polish command.
Units from other nations will join after parliamentary approval is given.
NATO’s SHAPE will have a significant role in the post-war stabilization
activities in Iraq.
2. The Post-Conflict
Issues in Macedonia, Kosovo, and Bosnia and Herzegovina: Kosovo
It would be premature to declare that progress has taken roots in
Kosovo in view of the continuing political violence, corruption, human
trafficking, and drugs and weapons smuggling, as well as the high unemployment
rate, all of which are facts of life in the province. More progress is
needed in aiding the return of refugees and securing minority rights.
Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo still need to fully accept responsibility
for creating functioning multiethnic communities that will participate
in the provisional institutions, respect cultural sites, and resolutely
oppose violence and terror.
In testimony given to the US House Committee on International Relations
on “The Future of Kosovo”, Daniel Serwer, Director of the Balkan Initiative
and Peace Operations at the United States Institute of Peace (USIP), offered
four suggestions to those with responsibilities for Kosovo: 1) The State
Department should begin consulting with Europe on the final status of
Kosovo, with a view to outlining a EU- and US-led process by the fall
of 2003; 2) Pristina should prepare for talks on the province’s final
status by forming a coordinating center to deal with Belgrade and ending
hostility towards Serbs and other minorities; 3) Belgrade should end its
hostility towards the UN authorities in Kosovo and establish constructive
relations, including in northern Kosovo and in the Kosovo Assembly; 4)
The UN should revive its proposal for talks on practical issues with a
view to opening them this summer. We should add to this proposal a contending
vision in Europe and North America that the evolutionary processes in
Kosovo must be left to develop without any pressure. However, a clearer
constitutional picture in Serbia, Kosovo, and Montenegro will stimulate
the reform processes in this part of former Yugoslavia.
THE NATIONAL PERSPECTIVES OF THE BALKAN COUNTRIES: SPECIFIC ISSUES
Serbia and Montenegro
Presidential elections were held in Montenegro on 11 May. Filip Vujanovic
(48), Speaker of the Parliament and representative of the Democratic Party
of the Socialists, won the election with 63.3 per cent of the votes. This
was possible after the government of Montenegro revised its electoral
law in order to eliminate the voter turnout requirement. Two previous
votes in December 2002 and February 2003 had failed. In both cases, Vujanovic
was the leading contender. He supports Montenegro’s integration into the
EU and NATO as a sovereign nation. Vujanovic has served as Justice Minister,
as Interior Minister, and twice as Prime Minister. It was regrettable,
however, that major opposition parties failed to field a candidate. The
incomplete separation of state and party functions in Montenegro continues
to be a concern for democratic observers.
BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL RELATIONS IN THE BALKANS. THE STATE OF THE
a) Bulgaria-Croatia. On 7 May, Croatian Prime Minister,
Ivica Racan visited Sofia. He met with Bulgarian Prime Minister Simeon
Coburgotski and signed a bilateral agreement for cooperation in health
care and medicine. Talks on cooperation in road and railway construction
b) Turkey-Bulgaria. The ministers of the interior of
Turkey and Bulgaria met in Ankara on 10 May. Abdulkadir Aksu of Turkey
and Georgi Petkanov of Bulgaria agreed to continue the bilateral cooperation
in fighting crime. The Bulgarian side promised to improve security on
Bulgarian roads after several Turkish drivers were attacked and robbed
c) Macedonia-Albania. The Prime Minister of Macedonia,
Branko Crvenkovski, met in Ohrid with Albanian Prime Minister Fatos Nano
on 21 May. The two leaders focused on further development of relations
between the two countries. The neighboring states will soon open a new
border crossing and are intensifying their cooperation in combating crime.
d) Croatia-Romania. Romanian President Ion Iliescu visited
Croatia on 26-27 May and met with his counterpart, Stipe Mesic. Trade
between the two countries tripled in 2002. President Iliescu also met
with Prime Minister Ivica Racan. Croatia intends to catch up with Romania
and Bulgaria and join the EU by 2007.
2. State of the Regional Initiatives: Pact
of Stability for Southeastern Europe/ EU/NATO/OSCE
A regional conference on “Management and Security at the Borders of the
Western Balkans” was held on 22-23 May in Ohrid, Macedonia, at the initiative
of NATO, the EU, the OSCE, and the Stability Pact for Southeastern Europe.
Representatives of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia,
Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia and Montenegro participated in the event
at ministerial and deputy-ministerial level. The conference was aimed
at hammering out a common strategy to battle cross-border organized crime
– a main source of instability in Southeastern Europe. NATO Secretary-General
Lord George Robertson also participated in the conference. The full integration
of the Western Balkans in the Euro-Atlantic structures is the strategic
goal of all participants in the conference. But before that, a crucial
challenge needs to be met – tightening border controls without hampering
the legal traffic of goods and people between the neighboring countries
that have been at war in the last years. A NATO statement issued during
the conference indicated that Western help could be expected in setting
up specialized police forces for border control.
THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE BALKAN COUNTRIES AND THE REGION
World Bank-Southeastern Europe
On 7 May, the WB and the Greek EU Presidency organized a conference in
Athens on the sustainable development of water resources. It called for
a new form of “environmental diplomacy” to enhance cooperation on water
issues among governments, international agencies, private industry, and
NGOs. The conference adopted a declaration that applauds two regional
cooperative efforts: the Southeastern Europe Transboundary River Basin
and Lake Basin Management Program and the Mediterranean Shared Aquifers
Management Program. The WB says water needs to be higher on the development
agenda of countries in the Balkans because better river basin management
can pre-empt floods, drought, coastal erosion, and river pollution.
2. Caspian Gas-Southeastern
The project for gas pipeline from the Caspian Sea to Central and Western
Europe was reported on 14 May to be included in the EU “Trans-European
Energy Networks”. The project will be subsidized by EU funds. The price
of the pipeline would be €6 billion. The project is a joint initiative
of the Bulgarian ‘Bulgargas’ company, Romanian ‘Transgas’, Turkish ‘Botas’,
Austrian OMV, and Hungarian MOL. The five companies concluded that the
most appropriate route runs through Bulgaria and Romania.
Negotiations for exporting Bulgarian electricity to Greece were completed
successfully on 16 May. The agreement covers the export of 440-480 million
kWh for one year.
THE PROCESS OF DIFFERENTIATED INTEGRATION OF SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE INTO
THE EU AND NATO
(1) The EC announced on 8 May that it was increasing its current financial
support to Bulgaria of €300 million by 40 per cent in the period 2004-2006.
On the same day, the President of Bulgaria, Georgi Parvanov met EC President
Romano Prodi in Brussels. Mr. Prodi said the EC could not guarantee that
bilateral accession talks with Bulgaria would end in 2004, but said the
EC was sticking by its earlier commitment to integrate Bulgaria and Romania
in 2007. (2) Bulgarian Minister of Defense Nikolay Svinarov told the EU
General Affairs Council meeting in the Ministers of Defense format on
19 May in Brussels that Bulgaria welcomes the creation of European security
forces and will participate actively from this year on. Bulgaria is ready
to provide a mechanized company to the Euroforce in 2003, and a mechanized
battalion in 2004. In 2004, Bulgaria will be able to provide an engineer
battalion specialized in building refugee camps and purifying water sources.
Also, Bulgaria may provide a company for chemical warfare protection,
two transport and two fighting helicopters, one battleship, and four staff
officers in 2004.
The EU said on 19 May
it hoped to conclude accession negotiations with Romania by October 2004,
allowing the country and its neighbor Bulgaria to join the Union in 2007.
The EC said it would do everything in its power to conclude negotiations
with Romania during its mandate, which expires at the end of October 2004.
EC expects Romania to make strong efforts to root out corruption, overhaul
its creaking administration and judicial systems, and restructure its
economy. The EC is sure that Romania has the political will to fulfill
all the conditions for accession. Bucharest is working hard to win the
status of “a functioning market economy”. Romania is the only candidate
country to earn this label yet, meaning that it is capable of withstanding
the competitive pressures of the EU’s single market over the medium term.
3. NATO-Serbia and Montenegro
NATO Secretary-General Lord George Robertson met with Serbian Prime Minister
Zoran Zivkovic on 20 May in Brussels to discuss the conditions Serbia
and Montenegro must fulfill to join NATO’s Partnership for Peace program.
Zivkovic said his country is determined to meet all the requirements by
the end of 2003, including the arrest of all indicted war criminals on
its territory. The NATO Secretary-General underlined the fact that this
is a critical precondition, and that it includes the arrest of Ratko Mladic,
who is believed to be hiding in Serbia. He said Zivkovic had made it clear
that if General Mladic is on Serbian territory, he will be arrested on
the indictment and arrest warrant issued by the ICTY in The Hague.
4. NATO-Seven Candidates
(1) On 14 May, the chiefs of the General Staffs of the seven candidate
states, including Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovenia participated in the
meeting of the Military Committee of the Alliance. The chiefs of the General
Staffs will participate from now on in the three annual meetings of the
Committee. (2) The Danish parliament on 15 May ratified the NATO Accession
Protocols to the North Atlantic Treaty (1949) by a vote of 101-4 in favor.
Denmark was the fourth state after Canada, Norway, and the United States
to ratify the Accession Protocols.
THE INFLUENCE OF OTHER EXTERNAL FACTORS ON THE REGION: NATIONAL GREAT
POWERS AND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS: US
US-Seven Candidate States
On 8 May, the US Senate voted unanimously (96-0) to ratify the expansion
of NATO. The vote underscored the relevance of the military alliance.
Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovenia were among the countries that passed the
hardest test of the US Senate ratification process. Slovenia was the only
one of the seven countries that was not part of the anti-Iraqi coalition.
The Senate approved an amendment instructing President George Bush to
ask NATO to consider dropping its requirement that decisions be unanimous
– a reflection of the US frustration at the blockage of the Turkish request
for NATO support during the war in Iraq. Also, without mentioning any
country, the amendment asks NATO to consider a policy for suspending members
that no longer adhere to democratic principles.
US-Albania, Croatia, Macedonia
US Secretary of State Colin Powell signed the ‘Adriatic Charter of Partnership’
with Foreign Ministers Ilir Meta of Albania, Tonino Picula of Croatia,
and Ilinka Mitreva of Macedonia on 2 May. It underscores and formalizes
US support for the shared aspirations of the three countries to full integration
in the Euro-Atlantic community, including membership in NATO. The Adriatic
Charter was jointly proposed to President Bush by the presidents of Albania,
Croatia, and Macedonia at the NATO Prague Summit in November 2002. Albania,
Croatia, and Macedonia jointly drafted the Charter.
Turkish officials on 7 May rejected criticism by US Deputy Secretary of
Defense Paul Wolfowitz, who suggested that the country had made a mistake
by not opening its doors to the US military during the Iraq war. Prime
Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said that Turkey, from the very beginning,
had never made any mistakes, and had taken all necessary steps in all
sincerity. On 27 May, the chief of the General Staff of the Turkish armed
forces warned the ruling Islamist party that it was in risj of jeopardizing
the secular character of the Turkish state. In the last 40 years, the
Turkish military has three times installed a military government after
staging coup d’etats. On 1 May the United States shut its last major Turkish
military mission as part of a regional shuffle of bases that is raising
the questions about Turkey’s strategic importance to Washington. The US
withdrew from the military base in Incirlik 50 jets and refuelling planes
and 1’400 personnel. Another 1’400 US personnel, serving in a NATO mission
will remain at the base.
(1) On 2 May, US Secretary of State Colin Powell signed an agreement in
Tirana with Albanian Prime Minister Fatos Nano on the respective exemption
of the two countries’ citizens from prosecution by the International Criminal
Court (ICC). Secretary of State Powell thanked Albanian leaders for supporting
the US-led war on Iraq. Albania sent 70 non-combat soldiers to Iraq. Albania
was the 32nd country to agree to the US demand for exemption of its soldiers
and civilians from the court’s jurisdiction. The Bush administration opposes
anything that might support politically motivated attempts to bring US
forces to justice. (2) A two-week long joint military exercise of 1’500
Albanian and US forces ended on 30 May in Albania. Elements of the US
Marine Expeditionary Unit and Amphibious Squadron 6, who had participated
in Operation ‘Iraqi Freedom’, joined the exercise on the US side. The
Albanian forces included military police, infantry, coordinators from
various army units, and observers.
US-Bosnia and Herzegovina
On 14 May, the Bosnian Presidency accepted a draft deal with the US on
the non-extradition of US citizens to the ICC and forwarded it to the
country’s Council of Ministers for a vote. The talks on the issue started
in March and were completed on 14 May. The Bosnian parliament is expected
to ratify the agreement by 1 July.
US Secretary of State Colin Powell visited Sofia on 15 May to launch the
celebration of the 100th anniversary of diplomatic relations between the
US and Bulgaria, to congratulate the Bulgarians on getting much closer
to joining NATO with the approval of the US Senate of the Accession Protocols
to the North Atlantic Treaty (1949), and to thank Bulgaria for its steadfast
support in the liberation of Iraq and the international campaign against
terrorism. Powell thanked Bulgaria for the role it played in supporting
UNSC Resolution 1441 to put pressure on Iraq to disarm peacefully. Then
Bulgaria made the courageous decision to join the coalition of the willing
that freed the world from the threat posed by Saddam Hussein, said Powell
to the people at the central Alexander Batenberg Square in Sofia. You,
continued the Secretary of State, stayed true to your principles and had
the courage to act. Powell reminded that US and Bulgaria serve together
in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan and soon will serve together in Iraq. He
also noted the unanimous vote of the US Senate on 8 May to welcome Bulgaria
in NATO. Secretary Powell told the press that Bulgaria plays an important
role in the fight against terrorism – it is “our strong right hand in
the war on terrorism and the disarmament of Saddam Hussein”. The Secretary
of State clarified the issue of the US bases in Bulgaria: no decisions
are taken yet and he does not think there will be any for some time. This
is still an issue that is under analysis by the Pentagon.
On 16-17 May US Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz visited Macedonia
and met with Macedonian officials, including President Boris Trajkovski.
Deputy Secretary Wolfowitz thanked him for Macedonia’s support, and especially
for the president’s personal support of the coalition to disarm Iraq.
He also expressed US support for democracy and the peaceful settlement
of disputes in Macedonia. The US applauds the Adriatic Charter and the
aspiration of Macedonia and its neighbors to become full members of the
Euro-Atlantic community. Wolfowitz underlined the importance of the reform
of the country’s armed forces as an essential element of building a democratic
Macedonia. Before coming to Skopje, Wolfowitz had visited Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Kosovo. He confirmed US’s strong commitment to supporting peace and
stability in the troubled region of the Western Balkans.
US - Serbia and Montenegro
The White House announced on 7 May that President Bush has issued a Presidential
Determination that opens the way for Serbia and Montenegro to receive
defense articles, services, and assistance from the US. According to President
Bush, defense cooperation with Serbia and Montenegro will encourage continued
defense reform and strengthen Serbia and Montenegro’s democratic institutions.
The US encourages the government of Serbia and Montenegro to pursue the
reforms that will advance the country’s integration with the Euro-Atlantic
community, the White House statement said.
difficult period for Southeastern Europe proved that the region is capable
of continuing its integration in the European and Euro-Atlantic institutions
while participating in the solution of tasks of global importance like
fighting terrorism and countering proliferation of WMD. Several Balkan
countries played significant roles in the past few months, which have
been testing for the region, while others refrained from becoming involved.
The US played a crucial part in helping the Balkan countries overcome
that test, taking advantage of the chance to bargain with three Balkan
states the exemption of its citizens from the ICC prosecution. The ratification
of the Bulgarian, Romanian, and Slovenian NATO accession protocols by
the US Senate in May was a historic occasion for the region and a major
step towards full emancipation in the Euro-Atlantic space of democratic
nations. The countries of Southeastern Europe can contribute even more
to the rehabilitation of the trans-Atlantic links, remaining a unifying
segment throughout the whole period of crisis.
CONTACT AND REFERENCE
Dr. Plamen Pantev, Editor–in–Chief
ISSN 1311 – 3240
Dr. Tatiana Houbenova-Delissivkova
Address: ISIS, 1618
Mr. Valeri Rachev, M.
P. O. Box 231, Bulgaria
Mr. Ivan Tsvetkov, M.
Phone/ Fax: ++(359-2-)
Dr. Todor Tagarev